report everything you notice. An example: Eye lids grow heavier,
shoulders slump and back bends, breathing deep, stomach growls,
throat swallows, ringing in ears, muscles in face seem quiet and
This is an old technique (Curtis, 1986). It is good for general
nervousness. Somehow the stressful sensations decline and peace
Positive affirmations. Many people believe that imagining doing
something well increases actual ability and self-confidence. So athletes
imagine hitting a home run, divers imagine a prefect dive, a speaker
imagines an excellent delivery. Supposedly, the unconscious mind
doesn't know the difference between a real experience and an
imagined one. So, your self-esteem grows. Likewise, if you say, with
feeling, positive things to yourself, a positive mental attitude will
develop. Picture in your mind exactly what you want to do or be. Feel
positive and confident as you imagine the desired behavior.
The statements should be repeated several times each session and
during 3 or 4 sessions each day. Examples of positive affirmations
(notice they describe in the present tense what you will be doing --"I
am calm" or "slim," not "I want to be calm" nor "I am not tense" or "I
am not fat"):
For a better self-concept and positive mental attitude--
Every day in every way, I am getting better and better.
I succeed because I believe I can.
I am filled with loving kindness.
I am happy and content.
To encourage some achievement--
I am proud of my body (visualize how you will look at your
I am an excellent student; I love to learn.
I can play _____ unusually well.
To relax and be healthy--
I am healthy, happy and relaxed.
Pain free, happy me.
To reduce worry--
forget the past and the future--I'm in the here and now.
I accept any challenge; I can handle it.
Expanded consciousness. This fantasy method was described by
Gibbon (1973) for increased awareness, greater concentration, better